A Namíbia foi declarada um protetorado alemão por Bismark em 1884. A conquista da África Sudoeste Alemã pela s forças sul africanas durante a I Guerra Mundial resultou em sua subseqüente administração pela África do Sul sob o mandato da Liga das Nações de 1920. Uma prolongada guerra entre as forças ocupantes sul africanas e o movimento de libertação da Swapo (Organização dos Povos do Sudoeste Africano) teve início em 1966.
In 1989 the implementation of United Nations Resolution 435 for free and fair elections resulted in Swapo coming to power. On March 21, 1990, after 106 years of foreign rule, Namibia achieved independence. Dr Sam Nujoma, who had started advocating independence for Namibia at the United Nations in New York as a young man in the 1960s, was instated as the country's first president.
Namibia is a sovereign, secular, democratic and unitary state. Namibia’s legislative powers are vested in parliament, consisting of two houses (National Assembly and National Council) with the assent of the President as provided in the Constitution. The president is elected directly by the electorate for two terms of five years each.
The Executive is composed of Cabinet which consists of the president, the prime minister, and such other ministers the president may appoint from members of the National Assembly, for the purpose of administering and executing the functions of the government.
Legislature is composed of two chambers, National Assembly (NA) and National Council (NC). NA members are elected on party list proportional representation, while members of the NC are drawn from regional councils whose election is conducted on the basis of the winner takes all. The council is composed of two members from each region.
The judicial system/power is vested in the courts of Namibia; composed of supreme courts (Court of Appeals), High Court of Namibia and lower courts.
The Government's policy of national reconciliation and unity embraces the concepts of tolerance, respect for differing political views, and racial and ethnic harmony. The Constitution provides for the division of power between the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
Following independence the country was divided into 13 political administrative regions as determined by the Delimitation Commission and proclaimed in March 1992. These are Omusati, Oshana, Ohangwena and Oshikoto in the north, Kunene in the north west, Kavango and Caprivi in the north east, Erongo in the west, Otjozondjupa in central, Omaheke in east, Khomas in central and Hardap and Karas in the south.
According to the official census (2001) Namibia has a population of 1.826 854 million, indicating a growth of some 416 000 in the preceding 10 years. There are still more females than males – 937 718 as compared to 890 137 – and the figures indicate an annual growth rate of 2.6% between 1991 and 2001. The Khomas Region (central, including Windhoek) is the most densely populated (250 305), followed by 250 205 people in Ohangwena and 201 093 in the Kavango Region. The population density, at fewer than two people per square kilometre, is one of the lowest in the world.
While English is the official language in Namibia, many other languages are spoken. They can be divided into three categories: the Bantu languages spoken by the Owambo, Herero, Kavango, Caprivians and Tswana; the Indo-Germanic languages of Afrikaans, German and English; and the Khoisan languages spoken by the Bush-men (San) and Nama/Damara.